Bell’s Theorem To The Art Bell Effect
By Jan Mirehiel
In Quantum Physics much has been made over the staggering implications of a theorem that forces physicists to consider that the entire notion of a purely objective world is in conflict, not only with the theory of quantum mechanics, but also with the facts as shown in actual experiments. These findings point insistently to a profound interaction between conscious mental activity and the physical world itself.
THE MYSTIC’S VISION
The mystic’s vision of a world in which man participates in a seamless existence, indivisibly united with the universe around him, is no different from that put forth in1964 by the physicist John S. Bell. His theorem, subsequently confirmed by experiment in 1972 by Professor John Clauser at Berkley, and by others since, has had an enormous impact on the physics community.1 In its most simple form, Bell’s Theorem states:
"If the statistical predictions of quantum theory are true, an objective universe is incompatible with the law of local causes."
Professor Henry Stapp, a physicist at Berkley and an authority on the implications of Bell's Theorem, has called it "the most important discovery in the history of science.
Although formidable at first glance, Bell's Theorem seems simpler once key terms are understood. First, an "objective universe" is simply one that exists apart from our consciousness. Secondly, the "law of local causes" refers to the fact that events in the universe happen at a speed that does not exceed the speed of light. This limitation, imposed by Einstein's special theory of relativity, is a mainstay of modern physical theory.
In 1935, Albert Einstein, together with Nathan Rosen and Boris Podolsky proposed through flawless mathematical reasoning that if the quantum theory were correct, then 'A change in the spin of one particle in a two particle system would affect its twin simultaneously, even if the two had been widely separated in the meantime'. Simultaneous is a dirty word in the theory of special relativity, which forbids the transmission of any signal faster than the speed of light.
Obviously, a signal telling the other particle 'what to do' would have to travel faster than the speed of light if instantaneous changes occurred in the distant particle.
The dilemma into which Einstein, Rosen and Podolsky dragged the quantum theory was a profound one, that came to be known as the ERP Effect, after the three of them. When Bell's Theorem emerged it indicated that their impossible proposition might in fact hold true.
Clauser’s confirmation of the "statistical predictions of quantum mechanics", used an elaborate system involving photons, calcite crystals, and photo multiplier tubes The same experiment has since been run several times with the same consistent results. Bell's Theorem stands solid.
THE IMPLICATIONS OF BELL'S THEOREM
Even for the physicists involved, the implications of Bell's Theorem are practically unthinkable. Mathematics and experimentation have taken us where our logical mind cannot go. Slowly, new ideas are emerging to explain these "impossible" occurrences.
One view is that, in some unexplainable way, the particles are still in contact although separated in space. This is the suggestion of the French physicist Bernard D'Espagnat. In 1979, writing about quantum reality, he said that "the entire notion of an external, fixed, objective world now lies in conflict not only with quantum theory, but in facts drawn from actual experiments.... in some sense all these objects constitute an indivisible whole."
Physicist Jack Sarfatti of the Physics/Consciousness Research Group proposes that it is ‘information’ rather than an actual energy-requiring signal that is transmitted between the distant objects. Thus no violation of Einstein's special theory of relativity occurs. It is not exactly, however, clear what this information is other than some strange thing which might travel instantly and require no energy to do so.
Nic Herbert, a physicist who heads the C-Life Institute, suggests that we have merely discovered an elemental oneness of the world. This oneness cannot be diminished by spatial separation. An invisible wholeness unites the objects that are given birth in the universe, and it is this wholeness that we have stumbled into through modern experimental methods. Herbert alludes to the words of the poet Charles Williams: "Separation without separateness, reality without rift."
It would be a mistake to suppose that these effects are relevant only to the invisible world of the atom. Professor Stapp states that the real importance of these findings is that they translate directly to our microcosmic existence, implying that there is a oneness implicit in Bell's Theorem which envelopes human beings and atoms alike.
The interrelation of human consciousness and the observed world is obvious in Bell's Theorem. Human consciousness and the physical world cannot be regarded as distinct, separate entities. What we call physical reality, the external world, is shaped - to some extent - by human thought. The lesson is clear; we cannot separate our own existence from that of the world outside. We are intimately associated, not only with the earth we inhabit, but with the farthest reaches of the cosmos.
Certain quantum physicists now say that each part of the universe contains all the information present in the entire cosmos itself (similar to a giant oak tree producing an acorn that contains all the information to replicate itself). This assertion is so audacious that it would be dismissed out of hand were it not that its chief proponent, David Bohm, a former associate of Einstein, and professor of theoretical physics at Birbeck College of the University of London, is regarded as one of the pre-eminent theoretical physicists of our day.
Bohm maintains that the information of the entire universe is contained in each of its parts. There is, he says, a stunning example of this principle in photography: the hologram (literally whole message).
A hologram is a specially constructed image which, when illuminated by a laser beam, seems eerily suspended in three-dimensional space. The most incredible feature of holograms is that any piece of it, if illuminated with coherent light, provides an image of the entire hologram. The information of the whole is contained in each part. The entire representation of the original object is contained in each portion of the hologram. This principle, says Bohm, extends to the universe at large, that the universe is constructed on the same principles as the hologram.
For Bohm, order and unity are spread throughout the universe in a way that escapes our senses. Each part of the universe contains enough information to reconstitute the whole. The form and structure of the entire universe is enfolded within each part.
Many working physicists say that these concepts are inescapable conclusions that flow from quantum mechanics and relativity. It is crucial to appreciate the scope of these implications. We frequently assume that quantum physics applies only to the diminutive realm of nature - electrons, protons etc., while relativity has only to do with massive objects of cosmic proportions -stars, galaxies, nebulae etc. But Bohm's contention is that we are squarely in the middle all of these phenomena. Ultimately, the entire universe has to be understood as a single undivided whole, in which analysis into separately and independently existent parts has no fundamental status.
What are the implications of a holographic universe? As part of the universe, do we have holographic features ourselves that allow us to comprehend a holographic universe? This question has been answered affirmatively by Stanford neurophysiologist, Karl Pribram. who has proposed the hologram is a model brain function. In essence, he views the brain as the 'photographic plate' on which information in the universe is encoded.
When the proposals of Bohm and Pribram are conceptually joined, a new model of man emerges, using a brain that encodes information holographically; and is itself a hologram of an even larger hologram - the universe and beyond.
SPACE AND TIME - THE HOLOVERSE
This indivisibility also applies fundamentally to space and time. Relativity has shown that they are inextricably linked, and cannot be teased apart.
Recall that one of the possibilities embodied in Bell's theorem involves the non-local features of the universe: objects once in contact, though separated spatially, and placed at distant ends of the universe, are somehow remain in contact. Since any change in one immediately causes change in the other, this is called a non local occurrence, meaning that information passing between the two objects must travel faster than the speed of light.
Since, according to the special theory of relativity, it is impossible for energy to exceed the speed of light, this event is said to be noncausal- i.e. not caused by the transfer of any conceivable kind of energy passing between the distant objects.
Although these nonlocal and noncausal descriptions are applied to objects separated in space, Bohm states that the implications of quantum theory also apply to moments in 'TIME'. What is crucial is that, according to the theory of relativity, there can be no sharp distinction made between space and time.
Indeed, astounding evidence of this truth has resulted from Princeton Engineering’s research into the field of global consciousness, and from the outcomes associated with the informal audience directives given by Art Bell and George Noory, to their large radio talk show audience
Ultimately, we are all connected through our roots in the universe. Our conscious mental activity exerts measurable effects on the physical world - a world that includes human bodies, organs, tissues, and cells. Mind becomes a legitimate factor in the unfolding of health and disease. The inter-penetration of all matter is the rule. The dividing line between life and non-life, consciousness and nonconsciousness is illusory and arbitrary.
There is only one valid way, thus, to partake of the universe and that way must be characterized by gratitude for participation in a universe of kinship with all others and with all matter. A reverential attitude that speaks of this oneness with the universe transforms the most common act into a sacrament. One who obtains this attitude will know what it means to experience the bliss of The Harmonic Concordance Moment, now.
1. To be accurate, in actual experimental situations, it is not Bell's Theorem that is tested, but the predictions of Quantum Mechanics.
Adapted from: Bell’sTheorem and Hinduism
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